Atbash Core Profile JAX-RS

Run your Jakarta Application without Runtime

Java EE and now Jakarta EE have the packaging requirements that your application needs to be bundled in a WAR or EAR file and executed by your runtime.
Traditionally, that was the application server that was already configured and running and you deploy the WAR file, containing your application, to it.

These days, with an application runtime, you can launch the runtime and at the same time deploy and run the application by specifying the WAR file location at the command. This makes use of the executable JAR file functionality within Java.

An example of Payara Micro

java -jar payara-micro.jar /path/to/myapplication.war

But now with the addition of the Java SE Bootstrap API to JAX-RS 3.1, this might change. And maybe you don’t need a runtime anymore.

Java SE Bootstrap API

The idea of the Java SE Bootstrap API is that you can start the JAX-RS implementation from the public static void main method. Some of the implementations already had support for this in the past, but it is now available within the JAX-RS specification and thus useable with any certified implementation.

You might wonder how that this is possible without using a servlet container?

When your application or server has REST endpoints that can be called by the client (application), you indeed need to capture the HTTP request. Most of the time, this is done using a servlet container and a specific servlet was responsible to call the correct JAX-RS method depending on the URL.

But actually, you don’t need a servlet for that. Any piece of code that listens on a socket can perform this operation. You don’t need a servlet for this task.

There is even a simple HTTP server within the JDK itself, since Java SE 6, that can be used for this purpose. But also other libraries and products like Netty can be used.

REST without server

Now that you have an API to start your JAX-RS server from within your code, like from within your main method, you can have your application respond to user requests.

The following snippet shows what is needed to realise that.

   SeBootstrap.Configuration.Builder configBuilder = SeBootstrap.Configuration.builder();, "HTTP")
                .property(SeBootstrap.Configuration.HOST, "localhost")
                .property(SeBootstrap.Configuration.PORT, 8080);

   SeBootstrap.start(new DemoApplication(),;

The DemoApplication class is the class that extends the JAX-RS Application class and provides all JAX-RS resource classes through the getClasses() method.

But you probably need more than just the JAX-RS support of Jakarta EE. What about CDI, JSON handling, etc …

Jersey has already an artefact where they integrate Weld, a CDI implementation that also can be started from pure Java SE since CDI 2.0 ‘Java EE 8, and the JSON support, JSON-P and JSON-P, by adding the Jersey media support modules for JSON.

So, you have already all the specifications that make up the Jakarta EE Core Profile, available without the need for any server. An example of such a project can be found in this example project.

Note that this option is different from the embedded server support some vendors provide. There is no specific glue code or additional functionality from the vendor in this case in action. Just some minimal linking between the different specifications.

Really, no server?

Yes, this is now possible and might be the right choice for your situation. It allows you to run your optimised combination of the specifications that you need for the application, right from your main method in Java. Similar to Spring Boot, Jakarta EE can now be used in a truly modular way and no longer require the potentially large set of specifications provided by the runtime that you don’t need.

But you might need to write some classes to better integrate some specification implementations beyond the ones of the Core Profile.

Atbash Runtime

And that is also the goal of the Atbash Runtime, a limited set of code to integrate the specifications seemingness but keep the modular aspect.

That is the reason for the addition of the JakartaRunner class that can be used to start your application from the main method. But at the same time use the module loader of Atbash Runtime so that all specification implementations that are on the classpath are integrated automatically, just like the case with Spring Boot.

It also adds a logging module on top so that you have already one concern less to make your application production worthy.

You can find an example of this approach in this project.


With the addition of the Java SE Bootstrap API to JAX-RS, it becomes now possible to create your own custom, modular runtime that can be started from the main method. This avoids the overhead of potentially many specifications and functionality from the runtime that are not needed for your case.

Atbash Runtime also supports this mode by providing an easy-to-use API that starts the module system of the product behind the scenes and seemingness integrates the different specifications that are found on the classpath.

Want to lean more about Jakarta EE 10 Core Profile?

This topic was discussed during my JakartaOne LiveStream event of 2022. Have a look at the presentation if you want to know more about the Core Profile “Explore the new Jakarta EE Core Profile“.

Atbash Training and Support

Do you need a specific training session on Jakarta or MicroProfile? Or do you need some help in getting up and running with your next project? Have a look at the training support that I provide on the page and contact me for more information.


Atbash Core Profile Jakarta EE

CDI 4.0 Lite and Potential Pitfalls

The CDI Lite specification is specifically created for the new Jakarta EE 10 Core Profile. This lite version is created to allow the discovery of CDI bans and preparation of the CDI container at build time.

This blog goes a bit deeper into a potential problem that you can encounter when building Core profile applications and running them on a Jakarta runtime concerning this CDI 4.0 Lite.

CDI Lite

To populate the CDI container with all the beans and the metadata to create the beans on demand like for the RequestScoped context, the CDI code needs to perform some initialisation.

Until now, the only available option is to perform a scan of the classpath and find the classes eligible as a CDI bean. Another source for beans is the CDI Portable Extensions that can register additional beans programmatically by the runtime or the application itself.

In the last few years, there are many initiatives to reduce the startup time of applications in various ways. The scanning of the classpath is a process that can be moved to the build phase if you have all classes available at build time. As you know, the JVM allows additional classes and libraries are added at runtime that was not available at build time. So, in case you move the metadata and bean discovery to build time, you need to make sure all classes are known and available or you need to provide the info.

The CDI Lite specification introduced the BuildCompatibleExtension interface to have the ability to move the scanning to the build phase of your application. This mechanism works similarly to the CDI Portable Extensions, where you have the opportunity to execute some methods during one of the 5 phases of the process.

At the same time, some classes are marked as not relevant for CDI Lite, as they are not really useful for the applications that are built with the Core Profile. Examples are the SessionScope and ConversationScope since REST applications are typically stateless. Keeping session information is in this case not required.

One single API artefact

The underlying narrative for creating the CDI Lite solution makes sense, but the single API solution is less obvious.

CDI lite contains most of the classes of the previous version of CDI and a few additional ones, like the BuildCompatibleExtension interface.
CDI full comprises CDI lite and a few additional concepts like the SessionScoped annotation that were available from the previous version of CDI but which didn’t fit into the CDI lite concept.

But the CDI 4.0 API artefact contains all classes, those of CDI Lite and CDI full.

Your project has only the option to add this single CDI API dependency to your project, as provided since the runtime has already these classes. And when your application is compiled and built against this API, it might fail at runtime.

You as a developer could have used or referenced a class from the CDI Full specification but you use a Core Profile certified runtime. This runtime only needs to support the CDI Lite classes and is not required to implement the other ones of CDI Full. So the application you successfully build fails at runtime. And you didn’t get notified of this problem during build time.

Testing for CDI Full classes usage

For this reason, I have created a small library that can inform you if you made use of one of the CDI Full classes in your code. You can write a test based on this code that fails when you make use of such a class. This way you get warned upfront that it might not run in production.

To make use of this library, add the following dependency to your project


With this dependency, you can write the following test method

void testCompliance() {
    TestCoreProfile tester = new TestCoreProfile("be.atbash");

The TestCoreProfile can determine those classes in the package you specify as a parameter, and in sub-packages, where you make use of a CDI Full class. If the list is empty, you are safe and good to go running it on a Core profile implementation.

Instead of using your top-level package, you can also specify a package from one of the CDI libraries that you have added to your project. This will tell you if that CDI library is safe to use on a Core Profile product.


CDI Lite groups all concepts of the CDI specification that is supported on the new Jakarta EE Core Profile. It also allows gathering information for the CDI container at build time.
But there is only 1 single artefact, containing all CDI Lite and Full classes. This means that even if your application compiles and builds successfully, it might fail on a Core Profile product. This is because you used some CDI Full-only classes that are not supported in Core Profile.
With the Jakarta Core Tester, you can find out if you referenced one of the CDI Full classes and it will run safely on your runtime.

Want to lean more about Jakarta EE 10 Core Profile?

This topic was discussed during my JakartaOne LiveStream event of 2022. Have a look at the presentation if you want to know more about the Core Profile “Explore the new Jakarta EE Core Profile“.

Atbash Training and Support

Do you need a specific training session on Jakarta or MicroProfile? Or do you need some help in getting up and running with your next project? Have a look at the training support that I provide on the page and contact me for more information.