Java EE and now Jakarta EE have the packaging requirements that your application needs to be bundled in a WAR or EAR file and executed by your runtime.
Traditionally, that was the application server that was already configured and running and you deploy the WAR file, containing your application, to it.
These days, with an application runtime, you can launch the runtime and at the same time deploy and run the application by specifying the WAR file location at the command. This makes use of the executable JAR file functionality within Java.
An example of Payara Micro
java -jar payara-micro.jar /path/to/myapplication.war
But now with the addition of the Java SE Bootstrap API to JAX-RS 3.1, this might change. And maybe you don’t need a runtime anymore.
Java SE Bootstrap API
The idea of the Java SE Bootstrap API is that you can start the JAX-RS implementation from the public static void main method. Some of the implementations already had support for this in the past, but it is now available within the JAX-RS specification and thus useable with any certified implementation.
You might wonder how that this is possible without using a servlet container?
When your application or server has REST endpoints that can be called by the client (application), you indeed need to capture the HTTP request. Most of the time, this is done using a servlet container and a specific servlet was responsible to call the correct JAX-RS method depending on the URL.
But actually, you don’t need a servlet for that. Any piece of code that listens on a socket can perform this operation. You don’t need a servlet for this task.
There is even a simple HTTP server within the JDK itself, since Java SE 6, that can be used for this purpose. But also other libraries and products like Netty can be used.
REST without server
Now that you have an API to start your JAX-RS server from within your code, like from within your main method, you can have your application respond to user requests.
The following snippet shows what is needed to realise that.
SeBootstrap.Configuration.Builder configBuilder = SeBootstrap.Configuration.builder(); configBuilder.property(SeBootstrap.Configuration.PROTOCOL, "HTTP") .property(SeBootstrap.Configuration.HOST, "localhost") .property(SeBootstrap.Configuration.PORT, 8080); SeBootstrap.start(new DemoApplication(), configBuilder.build());
The DemoApplication class is the class that extends the JAX-RS Application class and provides all JAX-RS resource classes through the getClasses() method.
But you probably need more than just the JAX-RS support of Jakarta EE. What about CDI, JSON handling, etc …
Jersey has already an artefact where they integrate Weld, a CDI implementation that also can be started from pure Java SE since CDI 2.0 ‘Java EE 8, and the JSON support, JSON-P and JSON-P, by adding the Jersey media support modules for JSON.
So, you have already all the specifications that make up the Jakarta EE Core Profile, available without the need for any server. An example of such a project can be found in this example project.
Note that this option is different from the embedded server support some vendors provide. There is no specific glue code or additional functionality from the vendor in this case in action. Just some minimal linking between the different specifications.
Really, no server?
Yes, this is now possible and might be the right choice for your situation. It allows you to run your optimised combination of the specifications that you need for the application, right from your main method in Java. Similar to Spring Boot, Jakarta EE can now be used in a truly modular way and no longer require the potentially large set of specifications provided by the runtime that you don’t need.
But you might need to write some classes to better integrate some specification implementations beyond the ones of the Core Profile.
And that is also the goal of the Atbash Runtime, a limited set of code to integrate the specifications seemingness but keep the modular aspect.
That is the reason for the addition of the JakartaRunner class that can be used to start your application from the main method. But at the same time use the module loader of Atbash Runtime so that all specification implementations that are on the classpath are integrated automatically, just like the case with Spring Boot.
It also adds a logging module on top so that you have already one concern less to make your application production worthy.
You can find an example of this approach in this project.
With the addition of the Java SE Bootstrap API to JAX-RS, it becomes now possible to create your own custom, modular runtime that can be started from the main method. This avoids the overhead of potentially many specifications and functionality from the runtime that are not needed for your case.
Atbash Runtime also supports this mode by providing an easy-to-use API that starts the module system of the product behind the scenes and seemingness integrates the different specifications that are found on the classpath.
Want to lean more about Jakarta EE 10 Core Profile?
This topic was discussed during my JakartaOne LiveStream event of 2022. Have a look at the presentation if you want to know more about the Core Profile “Explore the new Jakarta EE Core Profile“.
Atbash Training and Support
Do you need a specific training session on Jakarta or MicroProfile? Or do you need some help in getting up and running with your next project? Have a look at the training support that I provide on the page https://www.atbash.be/training/ and contact me for more information.